Layering Cultural and Business Transformation (Part 1)

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edited by
Matt Tricomi

Cultural impacts on federal civilian departments is laden with historical impacts, perceptions of that history, societal values and reactions, and differing orders of domains – ranging from serving, business, policy, and innovation.

This can be centralized at a high-level into the larger picture of how historical imprints create varying reactions in the civilian government sub-cultures. The softer sciences have historically had a large influence on management theory on how to address, but as the technology revolution, driven by the uncontrollable force of Moore’s Law weighs in, the future of management is being more driven by harder science.

The recent history of current few-decade managers are impacted by the organizations and industries history over several score (i.e. four score and seven years ago type of imprint). Finally, any organization history is impacted by the societal values put upon it as driven by a long-term revolution, or nature of humanity towards the industry.

History and precedence has fundamentally driven the  value models for selecting value frameworks in societies (i.e. despotism, democracy, hiring models), as well as managing and governing resources for business (i.e. distributed, products, services, aggregator, manufacturer, service provider). It is those investment approaches the have yielded technologies, that are controlled to within a certain society or set of societies

– and those investment approaches have yielded technologies, that once invented, are or can be controlled to within a certain society or set of societies

It is the latter that is changing the landscape ever since the industrial revolution. Oil discovered in the U.S. meant an infrastructure needed a lifeblood economy. That yielded exploration world-wide, in non-allied countries. Geo-politicism changed from sea-based conflict to oil-based. Yet, most other countries didn’t have the manufacturing power to use it. And they didn’t have the value framework to incent growth – quite the opposite, many used propaganda against western imperialism to maintain their current value-system.

Post-World War II began investment in new allies. Investment in manufacturing in Japan that led to 40 years later having other countries develop value frameworks around those business models. Yet, the U.S. research investment model followed the spot university innovation fund model that funded disparate projects based on its success during World War II – meaning, incubation project funding versus segment or “hub” funding. In the 1980s manufacturing business models moved to Asia and in early 2000s. It took near 80 years for manufacturing after massive oil exploration to create a new economy. Softer sciences were used in management to grow relationships, learn from history.

But looking forward, mostly due to the digital world which since the 1970s has been on a doubling every 18-24 months in capability, softer science management techniques are failing. The external driving our core architecture concepts we have expressed . A huge bellweather of change is looking at how the NSF and other research funding organizations are finally revising the 60 year old approach used to fund research, as a result of university support in World War II is now changing to more coordinated models to garner faster research to stay ahead. As offshoring models move services to Asia in similar vein of manufacturing, the United States management techniques are still relying on softer sciences to address cultural change. This is why Our concepts are biased towards the next “generations” concept .

Example Application of this theory

The approach stem from looking at External Pressure Trends observed in working with our executive clients in this space for developing a shared services environment. The summation below, to some, this may seem a bit dramatic, but consider the following factors happening globally.

First, the change in World Population to grow two-times in a single generation – for the first time in the history of the earth by no means is insignificant to how to address innovation. In addition, with the baby boomer population, who has lead the U.S. during this period, retiring en masse, there is a looming U.S. brain drain and not as many Generation X’ers to transition leadership to.

Second, legacy Physical Resources reaching limits which has put new larger focus on geoscience, planning, and resource managers which many of those infrastructures have not been stood up to prepare for such a large collective information and policy response. Delays to decisions and action on climate change has not changed consumption patterns of the U.S. and the rest of the world is following the natural resource and outdated suburban planning growth models. Furthermore, the change in 24/7 news media has further complicated through sensationalism without context and put under a lens with higher scrutiny how science is presented and perceived to a population that is continuously overloaded with information and cannot digest this complex set of scenarios.

The rapid change in consumer patterns of information is not helping matters either, as faster and more global transactions are outpacing the capability to get the message out. Information delivery and consumption has been logarithmic-ally accelerated by the Moore’s Law, yet the science community has not kept pace.

In reaction to this pace, there have been many more shorter term policy approaches, yielding disparate funding models, focus on building the technology in hopes that scientists and planners will come and build investments upon such. This has exacerbated the challenge to integrate the scientists and planners, and there has become a data analysis obsession for the wrong data as policies have not focused on organizing the supplier and assuring the quality data is used.

These shorter term policies, a focus on technology “Build it and they will come” approaches ultimately does not yield the true desire to have environments that will allow scientists, planners, and providers of data to collaborate on more complex problems in a shared environments.

Transformation Toolsets

Though Innovation in America is still seen as the leader of the world – as expressed to us by Japanese contracting partners on a few occasions in collaborative work – the American management style is struggling to adopt more measured techniques to deal with the rapid transformation. Technology investments in corporation, either be in management information systems, user self-service models, or data science issues have shorter lifespans on architectures developed just a few years before deemed to be multiple iterations. 

Given such, toolsets such as transformation methods that adopt a myriad of architecture techniques, enterprise analysis, business process modeling, compliance analysis, maturity model comparison, logical architecture and pattern analysis, and other measure methodologies are going through growing pains to help address this needed gap in management models with more hard science and objective analysis.

Xentity has looked at what we developed in the Methodology for Business Transformation and we presented to the Federal Enterprise Certification body and experts some concepts to overlay on top Cultural Transformation concepts that help address the management understanding gap. The following few blogs look to capture analysis approaches on how to do just that.

DOI EA recognized as winner in Excellence in Enterprise Architecture Award Winners at the 2nd Annual Enterprise Architecture Conference

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edited by
Wiki Admin

In 2004, the Department of the Interior Received E-Gov Institute’s  ‘Excellence in Enterprise Architecture’ Award. Our support stated one year after our contract began which started with the DOI receiving notification from OMB stating their IT budget would be cut $65 million because of lack of controls including a “worst” EA program sentiment. It took one year for this team to:

  • Re-use a base methodology from work performed at the Bureau of Land Management to address blueprints in key lines of businesses (i.e., Wildland Fire, Recreation, Law Enforcement and Financial Management). These blueprints identify gaps in Interior’s existing IT portfolio that hamper the successful achievement of goals and objectives, minimize system redundancy and improve data sharing.  
  • Design, stand-up, and manage data gathering a repository to house the DOI system inventory supporting new system inventory policy. For the first time, DOI had its portfolio tracked, mapped to FEA reference models, and mapps to how Security and CPIC tracked their enclaves and investments.
  • Use the information and bluerprints to help identify gaps in Interior’s existing IT portfolio that hamper the successful achievement of goals and objectives, minimize system redundancy and improve data sharing. This helped outline a roadmap for leveraging information technology to meet strategic and programmatic goals and objectives efficiently and effectively.  

These Enterprise Architecture portfolio and analysis management strategies helped for dealing with shrinking budgets while improving services to citizens and its business partners

Applicants for the Award were asked to answer the following questions:

What Customers Are you serving?

The Department of the Interior (DOI) manages one of every five acres of land in theUnited States, providing opportunities for wilderness, wildlife protection, recreation, and natural resource exploration, development and use. Key customers of the Interior Enterprise Architecture (IEA) are DOI executives and managers as well as the general public and Interior’s business partners.  Tangible benefits to these customers are being realized through the development of modernization blueprints that align IT planning and expenditures to achieve strategic and programmatic goals via architectural analyses.  For example, in 2004 DOI partnered with its recreation business managers to develop a Recreation Modernization Blueprint that identified a number of legacy redundant recreation reservation systems that originally were not slated for consolidation into the President’s Management Agenda Recreation One-Stop E-Gov initiative.  Through the approved blueprint, these systems will now be consolidated into the Recreation One-Stop target solution, resulting in a unified inventory of recreation opportunities for the citizen and cost savings to DOI and our partners.  In addition, to improve on-line amenities and trip planning through Recreation One-Stop, the modernization blueprint defined future system interfaces with existing DOI applications (e.g., trails, facilities, and river databases) which will provide recreationists more robust information about Interior-managed parks and monuments.  Under the IEA program, a modernization blueprint was also developed for financial management.  This blueprint played a substantial role in the acquisition of the Financial and Business Management System and serves as a key input to the Government’s overall effort to improve financial systems.  Other blueprints have been developed for Law Enforcement and Wildland Fire in 2004.


What Benefits have you Achieved to Date?

Three major achievements have been realized under the IEA program in 2004.  First, a DOI-wide EA repository (DEAR) was established, using a tailored commercial off the shelf (COTS) architecture tool that supports Interior’s business and architectural requirements.  Both the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of State (DOS) are in the process of creating centralized EA repositories based on the DOI model.  This EA repository aligns with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) for improved information sharing with other federal agencies.  The repository unifies all EA development efforts and artifacts under one taxonomy and in a centralized source accessible to all Interior bureaus and offices.   Through the repository, bureau architects and system owners map their systems and investments to Interior’s strategic plan, and to business, data, service and technology reference models.   The repository is “mined” throughout Interior to identify cross-cutting solutions, reduce redundancies and identify reusable and sharable service components that ultimately drive down Interior’s infrastructure costs.  Secondly, a modernization blueprint methodology was developed to provide structure and consistency in Interior’s architecture development.  The methodology employs a highly-structured process which encompasses analyses of organizational structures, business functions, processes, data requirements, existing systems and planned investments, to achieve improved performance in accomplishing Interior’s strategic and tactical goals.  The methodology encompasses a set of scoring criteria, based on the OMB FEA Reference Models, covering performance, business, data, application, technology and security maturity to define a target state and transition plan from Interior’s as-is architecture.  These blueprints are presented to Interior’s Investment Review Board for approval to guide future capital planning and IT investment decision-making.  Lastly, modernization blueprints were developed for the Financial Management, Recreation, Wildland Fire and Law Enforcement lines of business (LOB) under the IEA program in 2004.   Each modernization blueprint provides a detailed plan for improving internal efficiencies and end services, minimizing security and privacy risks, and reducing Interior’s total cost of ownership through elimination of redundant systems and investments.  Combined, the four modernization blueprints have identified approximately 100 redundant systems that DOI will retire within the next 1-3 years, resulting in millions of dollars in savings. Organizational boundaries that prevent the efficient sharing of information are being reexamined and less than optimal reuses of data are being corrected. Opportunities for business process reengineering have been identified to facilitate common approaches to deliver end-services to the citizen and partnering agencies.  In the Recreation LOB alone,16 systems that would have remained on-line will now be retired, saving valuable IT funding and improving the President’s Management Agenda E-Gov Recreation One Stop initiative’s service to the citizen. In the financial blueprint, 166 systems are being improved, with over 80 identified for retirement at this time, thus saving money and improving financial accountability.


Explain how the Process and the Stakeholders to the Process were engaged in this effort.

The process of creating an integrated EA methodolgy for DOI engaged stakeholders from the highest levels of Interior’s mangement to the field system owners. Both a top-down and bottom-up approach was taken. From the top, senior management were briefed from the beginning on the benefits of developing a single cohesive EA effort in Interior that followed the OMB FEA models. This approach was approved by the DOI E-Gov Team and the Interior IT Investment Review Board.  A governance structure was established and implemented to support the moderniztion blueprint analyses.  This governance structure and blueprint methodology included input from business managers, system owners, and key IT officials (e.g., Bureau CIOs and Deputy CIOs) across Interior.  Key in implementing the methodology was alignment to Interior’s strategic plan that incoporated input and feedback from Interior’s stakeholders and the end citizen.  By integrating the goals and objectives of Interior’s strategic plan as the DOI performance reference model, the IEA ensured a citizen-centric focus was followed.  The governance boards included membership from DOI headquarters and all DOI bureaus and offices.  This tactic proved highly successful as all stakeholders were involved from the start and understood the benefits to be derived. With the governance structure in place, bureau architects, IT system owners and users were engaged in the process of implementing the DOI central EA respository and the development and review of the modernization blueprints.  Stakeholders external to DOI were engaged in the process as appropriate.


Why do you consider this Enterprise Architecture and award winning, transformational, innovative plan?

The DOI EA effort is unique in many aspects. DOI was the first federal cabinet agency to “operationalize” the OMB FEA Reference models through a Department-wide EA repository and blueprint methodology that unified EA development across its bureaus and offices.   Interior has been contacted by other cabinet agencies (e.g., Departments of State and Energy) to leverage Interior’s repository design and supporting blueprint methodology.  The FEA reference models were created as a hierarchical classification system for the federal government.  However, these models, albeit critical in cross-agency analysis, provided a very high-level taxonomy geared towards inter-agency analysis.  The DOI extended the FEA models by linking them to the DOI Strategic Plan goals and outcomes, Interior’s Activity Based Costing model and  Capital Planning and Investment Control database, data architectures, the DOI Technology  Reference Model and Interior’s IT system inventory.  Using these operationalized models, DOI IT investment decision-makers can now see direct links between their IT systems and investments and DOI goals targeted for accomplishment.  The DOI implemented a strategically business-driven EA repository that connects architecture, information security and investment management artifacts and information. The DOI not only inventoried its IT system assets, but provided the means to strategically analyze them in the context of future planning cycles to control investments, security risks and technology standardization while reducing IT costs.  Further, since all of the information in the repository is available to all DOI stakeholders, it improves data sharing through standardized data, identification of re-usable/shareable components, and definition of common solutions for future IT investments.  Also unique to DOI is the modernization blueprint methodolgy.  Using a quantitative process, the methodology facilitates the change required to maximize the IT investment process to meet the business managers’ and corporate needs.  DOI’s Investment Review Board endorsed the IEA modernization blueprint methodology requiring the blueprints to be used to guide the Interior’s IT investment process resulting in a strong linkage between EA and the capital planning and investment control process.  Finally, whereas many EA programs are viewed as theoretical and academic exercises, under the IEA program an actionable architecture has been produced using line of business modernization blueprints that will result in tangible benefits to the citizen, Interior’s business partners and overall reduction in Interior’s IT costs.